Fullerene from the proterozoic shungite deposit at Kondopoga, Karelia, Russia: Isotopic and spectroscopic studies
Article in Chinese Science Bulletin 43:98 · January 1998
G. Parthasarathy, Mariappanadar Vairamani, R. Srinivasan, A. C. Kunwar
Our review of this article
Researchers from the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology carried out a research project to establish whether Proterozoic rocks contains fullerenes. Fullerenes were first synthesized and discovered in carbon-rich Precambrian rocks of shunga village in Russia popularly known as shungite. Some workers found fullerenes in rocks that had undergone various geological events like wildfires and lightning strikes. Some researchers also doubted the results published Dr. Buseck on the presence of fullerenes in shungite rocks. These researchers opted to use shungite obtained from another locality called Kondopoga to help them prove that fullerenes are present in low-grade Proterozoic shungite
The lower proterozoic region of Karelia is popular because of its carbon-rich rocks called shungite. The region has been divided into Sumain, Sariolian, Ludicovian, Vespian, and Livvian subgroups. The Livvian and Ludicovian subgroups are popular because of their deposits of shungite. Researchers collected shungite samples from kandopoga to carry out their investigations. Their sample resembled type 1 of shungites. However, their low carbon content was similar to type 4 shungites They used powder X-ray diffraction methods to carry out their research. Spectroscopic studies were carried out on the carbonaceous powder to establish whether it contained fullerenes.
Results and Discussion
The researchers found out that shungite contained fullerenes and this should clear all the doubts on Dr. Buseck on the same matter. This article further hypothesizes that fullerene occurrence in low-grade shungites was discovered using the mass spectroscopy methods. The research confirmed that Proterozoic shungite from Kandogopa contained fullerene molecules. These results met the expectation of researchers because they found another shungite deposits away from the Karelia region. This confirmed that fullerenes are not confined only in shunga village. All the researchers agreed that these findings are genuinely based on various tests they had undertaken. It is true that Proterozoic shungites contain fullerene molecules. It is clear that fullerene are wide spread and are not only found in shunga village in Karelia.
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