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Research of Influence of Shungite on Mountain Water from Bulgaria

 

Ignat Ignatov, Oleg Mosin

Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics (SRCMB), N. Kopernik Street, 32, Sofia 1111, Bulgaria

Biotechnology Department, Moscow State University of Applied Biotechnology, Talalikhina Street, 33, Moscow 109316, Russian Federation



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A study was conducted to determine the structure and composition of a natural mineral with a high concentration of carbon known as shungite. Samples of the mineral were obtained from Its Zazhoginskoe deposits in Karelia (Russian Federation). The study also demonstrated the potential of the mineral to be used as an adsorbent in water treatment and purification industry because of its high absorption capacity. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of Shungite on mountain water obtained from Bulgaria.

 

Background Information

 

Shungite is an intermediary between graphite and amorphous carbon. The mineral was named after the Shunga village in Karelia (popularly known as the Russian Federation). The total reserve of this mineral at its Zazhoginsky deposits is approximately thirty-five million tons. But the production capacity of the plant that is processing and mining it is two hundred thousand tons annually.

 

This natural mineral has several applications in the manufacturing industry. It was first used to substitute carbon coke in the manufacture of cast iron. It contains valuable bactericidal, reduction-oxidation, and adsorption properties and its ability to reduce radio and electromagnetic radiations. These features have made the mineral to be used in technology, industry, and science. The catalytic, reduction-oxidation and adsorption properties of the mineral are useful in water purification and treatment technologies.

 

Materials and Methods

 

The research was using samples of the mineral that were obtained from Zazhoginsky deposits (Karelia, Russia). These samples were analyzed according to the National Standard of the Russian Federation of Technical Regulation and Metrology. They were put into glass tubes of 100 cubic centimeters after they were washed with dist.

 

-Analytical methods

 

The analytical techniques used were approved by the Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits.

 

-Gas-Chromatography

 

These tests were done at Main Testing Centre for Drinking Water using AW-DMCS chromatin and Helium gas.

 

-Elemental Analysis

 

The concentration of carbon in Shungite was measured based on ISO 29541 standards by employing elemental analyzer CHS-580, equipped with IR-detector and electric furnace that burnt the 200 mg of the sample in the presence of oxygen at 1500 degrees Celsius.

 

Structural properties of Shungite

 

According to the research conducted, it was found out that the mineral has a high concentration of carbon compared to graphite. The fine particles of the mineral have excellent bipolar properties. This gives the mineral the ability to mix with other inorganic and organic substances. The great features of Shungite are defined by the composition and nanostructure of its elements. The carbon is distributed in quartz crystals.

 

The carbonaceous nature of this mineral is a result of hydrocarbon carbonization. X-ray studies the molecular structure of this mineral is shown by uncrystallized carbon, which is close to carbon black and graphite.

 

Effects of Shungite on Deionized Water

 

By measuring the IR spectra, you can obtain the following data:

 

- Structural framework, especially the lattice ratio

 

- Nature of the fundamental groups surface, which act as catalytically and active adsorption sites.

 

One way of obtaining information about the hydrogen bonds energy in liquid form is by measuring the entire spectrum in a liquid state.

 

Shungite as Absorbent

 

Due to its porous structure, the mineral is used as natural absorbents with several characteristics including:

 

-Low abrasion resistance and mechanical strength

 

-low cost

 

-Catalytic activity

 

-Ecological safety and environmental friendliness

 

The research conducted on the antioxidant properties of the mineral comparing it to other organochlorine compounds showed that the mineral could remove radicals out of mountain water effectively than the activated carbon. This is crucial because free radicals are formed when water is treated with chlorine have adverse effects on the health of humans.

 

These positive attributes allow the mineral to be used as a filler material in the treatment of wastewater. Thus Shungite has the capacity of purifying wastewater by absorbing all the contaminants that include phenols, heavy metals, dioxins, and radionuclides. It can remove color and turbidity while giving water excellent organoleptic qualities.

 

That is the reason why the mineral is applied to mineralize and filter water. Research has also shown that the mineral has several therapeutic benefits such as solving digestive problems, chronic respiratory issues, muscle aches as well as headaches.

 

To use this mineral, you need to wash it with water to remove any dirt or dust. Shungite has been used successfully to filter mountain water from Bulgaria. It is due to the positive properties of this mineral that it has been used in preparing water for domestic and commercial purposes. It is used to improve the quality of water in the wells.

 

Conclusions

 

The fullerene-containing mineral containing shungite has several practical applications in industry and significant science disciplines and can be used in water treatment as an absorbent. The mineral is efficient because of its antioxidant, catalytic, antibacterial and regenerative properties that it possesses. The filter systems that are based on shungite are environmentally friendly and are cheaper compared to other types in the market. All the factors discussed above contribute to the expansion and production of materials based on this mineral.

 

There is a new trend where people are using it to produce water. But researchers will continue to carry out experiments to find out more details.

 

It is a well-known fact that pollution is caused mostly by human activity especially when they are dealing with heavy metals. Today, most of our water sources are saturated with these heavy elements that exceed safe levels.

 

Shungite has a fantastic ability to absorb salts from the mountain water thus maintaining low mineral levels in that water. The mineral is like a sponge charged with elements in a ratio to those that are on earth.

 

The excellent properties have made it be used in water filters to produce drinking water with a natural taste. This article has provided a brief synopsis of the research that was conducted to establish the structure, composition, and effects of Shungite on mountain water from Bulgaria that readers wanted to know. However, this is only a beginning as more experiments will be conducted on shungite later.

 

References

 

View full text http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JMPB/article/viewFile/21554/21915

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