Amorphous shungite carbon: A natural medium for the formation of fullerenes
V. A. Rezniko, Yu. S. Polekhovskii
St. Petersburg State University St. Petersburg Russia
A group of researchers comparatively analyzed data on the porosity, intermolecular space and density of graphite, shungite, C60 and glassy carbon to estimate the fullerene content in them. According to fullerene synthesis methods of C70 and C60 developed in 1990, these compounds should be present in any rock that contains carbon. Shungites were found to contain C70 and C60 fullerenes after their physicochemical properties data were published. They are the only natural mineral rocks that contain aromatic carbon molecules. The researchers wanted to investigate the concentration, distribution and molecular composition of these fullerenes in shungite. This research will help them to identify components of shungite that are used for ecological and medical reasons.
Scientists believe that there must be a close relationship between fullerene-like structure, shungite carbon and the content of fullerenes. They wanted to analyze the macrophysical properties of carbon shungite to establish the limiting content of shungite. Shungite is known to contain fullerenes that make it to have curative and protective properties. Fullerenes are also responsible for bioenergetic, geobiological and biological features of shungite. These fullerenes are present in any form of shungite.
Properties of C60 fullerenes
C60 has been considered an adatom with a large radius because of its high polarizability and electronegativity. For instance, C60 is soluble in nonpolar solvents just like iodine. It can exhibit both metallic and molecular properties depending on the environment. This explains why C6o is able to form various chemical bonds with other substances. A 10% reduction in crystals distance compared to that of graphite suggests that exchange interaction is possible. The high mobility of C60 molecules from the equilibrium suggests that one act as a donor while the other behaves like an acceptor. This acceptor and donor model can be applied to 300,400, or 500mm pairs.
Thus, the interaction of high-energy and low-energy of acceptor molecules is an attribute of C60 crystals. A unique feature of C60 is the presence of pentahedra, whereby carbon atoms are between one pentagon and two hexagons. Pentahedra structure is formed due to self-organization nature of C60 molecules. This is indicated by conciding energies in the molecules that form C60. Thus amorphized graphite clusters can form fullerene-like molecules. The C- clusters fullerene synthesis process is effective as long as energy is released instantly upon contacting clusters that have low energy.
Fullerenes are new forms of carbon that have been discovered, but previously existed ad coal, graphite or diamond. They were named after an American architect, Buckmisnter Fuller, who designed domes that resembled fullerenes appearance.
Structurally, fullerenes are hollow spheres that are connected by strong pentagonal and hexagonal rings. They almost resemble a soccer ball and people sometimes call them "buckyball’.
Functionally, they have impacted on all natural sciences and made it possible for breakthroughs in medicine, superconductivity, nano technology and stealth technology. They are so vital in the scientific world that scientist who first discovered them were given a Nobel Prize for chemistry.
Their quantum behavior has attracted the attention of scientists who have observed them using two slits simultaneously. The research was conducted using smaller fullerene particles such as photons, electrons or single atoms.
For many years after the discovery of fullerenes in 1985, but most scientists believe it can only be produced under strict laboratory conditions. In 1992, Geochemists who were working at Arizona State University noted that there were close similarities between shungite and laboratory-produced fullerenes. This recognition that shungite contains fullerenes brought a revolution to the scientific world.
Since then, researchers have been using shungite for various applications such as water treatment, radiation shielding, and other medical breakthroughs.
The researchers found out that shungite contained fullerenes. Fullerenes are strong anti-oxidants and its presence in shungite makes it unque. This makes shungite rocks to have strong healing qualities and will neutralize any organism in the human body that can harm them. The Russians have used shungite for many years and have written so many articles about it.
Fullerenes are responsible for the healing powers of shungite, since it contains strong antioxidant properties. Doctors use fullerenes to fight free radicals that might have invaded the human body.
The researchers found out that shungite, carbon and graphite all contain fullerene but on different proportions. Their research was of significant value the medical industry where shungite is used for treating various ailments.
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